Otolaryngology is a medical specialty that treats conditions of the ears, nose, and throat. Specialists in this field have training in surgery as well as medicine. Because otolaryngology involves the ears, nose, and throat, these specialists are known as ear, nose, and throat (ENT) doctors. For an ENT physician, the ear, nose, throat, larynx, and the sinuses are in the scope of treatment areas. Unlike physicians who can only medically treat conditions involving these areas and structures, ENT doctors can treat and also perform surgery on the structures involved, if necessary.